– Also called Osteonecrosis, aseptic necrosis, or ischemic bone necrosis.
– It is the death of bone tissue due to a lack of blood supply.
– The blood flow to a section of bone can be interrupted if the bone is fractured or the joint becomes dislocated.
– Most common in people between the ages of 30 and 60.
– Head of the femur is a common site.
Causes of Avascular Necrosis of femoral head
1.Idiopathic – Most Common
4.Sickle cell disease
5.Patient on renal dialysis
6.Patient on anticancer drugs
– The disease is bilateral in 75% of cases.
– The patient complains of pain in the groin or in front of the thigh.
– Pain is present at all times but increases on exertion.
– X-rays may be normal in the early stage.
– If suspicion is strong, a bone scan may be done.
– In the later stage, an osteolytic lesion can be seen in superolateral part of the head.
– There may be diffuse osteosclerosis of the head, but the shape of the head may be maintained.
– In the advanced stage, the head collapses.
– Eventually, changes of secondary osteoarthritis become apparent.
– MRI scan is the best modality for early diagnosis of Avascular Necrosis.
– Core decompression and fibular grafting are done if the head of the femur has not got deformed.
– In later stages, once the head gets deformed, muscle pedicle bone grafting using Tensor fascia lata has been shown to produce good results.
– In some cases with involvement of a part of the head, an Intertrochanteric Osteotomy has been described.
– In cases with changes of advanced osteoarthritis, Total Hip Replacement becomes necessary.
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