Abdominal Regions

Abdominal Regions The Abdomen Is Divided into Nine Abdominal Regions By Two Horizontal And Two Vertical Lines.  Two Horizontal Lines 1. Transpyloric Line ( Midway Between Xiphisternum & Umbilicus ) 2. Transtubercular Line ( At The Level Of The Two Tubercles On The Iliac Crest About 2 Inches Behind The Anterior Superior Iliac Spine )

Basics of ECG

Basics of ECG Heart Rate [ Ventricular rate ] Rhythm – Regular (same R-R intervals): 1500 / No. of small squares between 2 R- waves. Rhythm – Irregular (different  R-R intervals): No. of R- waves in 15 large squares × 20 Atrial Rate In Total Heart Block, It Is Different From The Ventricular Rate Atrial

Trophic Changes

Trophic Changes 1.Trophic Changes In The Skin & Appendages: Dry/ Rough/ Cold Skin Pigmentation Local Cyanosis/Local Oedema Hypohydrosis (Lack Of Sweating) Hypotrichosis(Fall Of Hairs) Brittle Nails 2.Trophic Ulcers: Trophic Ulcer- Usually Present Over The Heel Or Ball Of The Great Toe Sites Examined- On The Lateral Malleolus Back Of The Heel Of Foot Shoulder Girdles


Fatigue It is the excessive tiredness on exertion.The severe form of fatigue is known as ‘exhaustion’. Common Causes 1.Physiological– overwork, insomnia. 2.Pathological– Nutritional Deficiency, Dyselectrolytaemia Congestive cardiac failure (CCF), Hepatic Failure, Uraemia, Malignancy, Immunocompromised States, Sleep-Apnoea Syndrome Myxoedema, Diabetes Mellitus, Addison’s Disease, Thyrotoxicosis Tuberculosis, Brucellosis, Post-Viral Infectious States (e.g. Influenza Or Infectious Mononucleosis), Collagen Vascular